HIV transmission, its causes, diagnose and treatment
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus which transmits by casual contact. It makes weaker our immune system. It causes to decrease the number of CD4 by replicating virus cells. There are many of the symptoms to diagnose HIV. It has no cure. But it can also be treated well by some of the medical treatments and therapy.
How HIV can be transmitted?
HIV cannot transmit by air, water or food. It can only transmit by casual contact. It can be transmitting in bodily fluid that includes:
Vaginal and rectal fluids
Some of the HIV ways of getting this disease are given below as it can spread from one person to other person.
- HIV can be transmitting through vaginal or anal sex. The most common transmission happens among the men who have sex with men.
- It cannot only transmit by sex. It can also transmit by using the items of other people such as use of syringes, needles and some other items.
- By sharing tattoo equipment without sterilizing it also increases the chances of develop HIV.
- The germs of this disease can also transfer from a mother to baby during pregnancy, labor or delivery.
- Breastfeeding is also a main transmission point.
- By chewing a baby’s food before feeding it to them and pre-mastication are also transmission causes.
- HIV can also transfer through exposure of blood such as through a needle stick.
Tissue transplant, organs and blood transfusion are also important types of transferring HIV virus. It’s very important to do some important tests before any transfusion and transplant. As the test will tell you to that donor are not having such sort of any disease. It’s rare in the United States. Some of the HIV spreading things are also these:
- It can also be transfer by oral sex (as a person has bleeding gums or open pores in the mouth).
- Being a beaten by a person with HIV.
- Contact with those people who have wound, broken skin, or may be mucous membranes.
HIV virus cannot be transfer because of these things.
- By hugging, shaking hand or kissing someone.
- It can also not be transfer through skin-to-skin contact.
- Air or water is also not cause the transfer.
- Sharing food or drinks or drinking fountains are not included.
- Saliva, tears or sweat are also not included these unless they are not mixed with HIV.
- Sharing a toilet, towels and bedding may not be the causes of transferring HIV.
- Mosquitoes or other insects are also not reasons behind it.
Causes of HIV:
HIV virus basically indicated in 1920s when it found in African chimpanzees. Scientists have suspected that HIV virus is transferred from the chimpanzees. But how it transferred? They named virus as simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) which found in chimpanzees. This SIV transferred from chimpanzees to human when they eat the meat of infected chimpanzees.
Then HIV transferred from person to person in Africa for several decades. Even this virus spread in different parts of the world. In 1959, first time HIV discovered in human blood. This is present in United States since 1970s. It hit the people in 1980s.
How can we diagnose HIV?
We can diagnose HIV easily by tests recommended by doctor or provided by Healthcare. Some of the tests of diagnose of HIV are given.
- Antibody/ antigen tests:
- An antibody is a type of protein which makes the body to fight an infection.
- An antigen is that part of virus which activates the immune system.
This is the most common test to diagnose HIV in which they test the blood for antibody or antigen. This test can give positive results when a person has initial contract stages with 18-45 days.
- Antibody tests:
In this test blood tested to check the presence of antibodies. HIV antibodies can be found in the blood or saliva, after the transmission of it. It can be indicated between 23-90 days after transmission HIV transmission, its causes, diagnose and treatment.
This test can also be done by using blood test o mouth swabs. This can give results in 30 minutes or less than 30 minutes. Some other antibody test can be done at home.
- OraQuick HIV test: In this test mouth swab tested to diagnose it. It can take less than 20 minutes to provide results.
- Home Access HIV-1 Test system: This is a test which could take by prickling the finger. After this, blood sample send to a licensed laboratory. The results of this test may give after some days.
- Nucleic acid test (NAT):
This test is taken when a person have early stage of HIV or have a known factor. This is expensive test which is not used for general screening. This test is not basically for looking antibodies but it is for virus itself. It takes 5 to 21 days for HIV.
Treatment for HIV:
Complete cure of HIV is not yet discovered. But some of the treatments are available. Treatment should begin when it diagnoses. The main treatment available for HIV is antiretroviral therapy.HIV transmission, its causes, diagnose and treatment In this therapy, people treated with medications, these medications help to stop the reproduction of viruses. This therapy also helps to protect CD4 cells. CD4 cells are cells which fight off the diseases and help to stay healthy. If the immune system is strong so the diseases will also be away from a person.
This therapy is also favorable to stop the progress of HIV to become AIDS. It also reduces the risks of transmitting HIV to other people.
The viral load becomes undetectable when treatment is effective. Sometimes people may still have HIV viruses but they don’t appear in test results. The virus may still in the body but may not be visible. It can be stop by antiretroviral therapy. This may also stops the increase in HIV again and also prevent to attacking on CD4 cells.